By default Google Analytics shows you the last 30 days of data when you log in. There is no built in functionality to change this default period. If you set a differet date range and bookmark the resulting page, those specific dates are hard coded in the bookmark. There is no way to bookmark a different time period such as the last year.
Once you enter your Google Analytics report ID into this page, this page will generate a variety of links into your reports for a much wider range of time periods than just the last 30 days that is available by default.
This makes easy to copy this page locally if you wish to tweak it. For example you may wish to change the specific set of date ranges available to suit your tastes. Or you could change the links to point to a different report rather than the visitors overview report.
Copyright Stephen Ostermiller 2013-2014